Glaucoma

Glaucoma

Group of disorders characterised by increased intraoccular pressure  atrophy and damage of optic nerve and retinal ganglion cells  loss of visual fields

Primary glaucoma:
• open angle (also chronic, simple, wide angle)
• angle closure (also acute, narrow angle)
Secondary glaucoma:
Occurs in uveitis, trauma, drugs (eg corticosteroids), diabetes, venous occlusion

Aetiology:
• Open angle glaucoma – from degenerative changes that block flow of humor from eye  increased pressure
• Angle closure glaucoma – obstruction of outflow of humor due to an anatomically narrow angle between iris and cornea  causes sudden increased in intraocular pressure

Treatment:
• Open angle – need to reduce pressure (beta-adrenergic blockers); laser trabeculoplasty
• Angle closure – emergency

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