Uveitis is a general term for a group of conditions of eye inflammation affecting the uveal tract (iris, ciliary body and choroid). About half the time it is an isolated local problem. It is associated with other eye disorders including glaucoma, retinal detachment, optic nerve damage and cataracts. Uveitis is classified anatomically into anterior, intermediate, posterior or panuveitic forms, depending on which part of the eye is primarily involved. Early diagnosis and treatment are important to prevent any complications developing and preserving vision.
Typical clinical features include redness, eye, light sensitivity, blurred vision, floating spots (floaters), decreased vision.
The most common causes of uveitis are infection, injury, an autoimmune or inflammatory condition. However, often a cause is not identified.
Anterior uveitis is important in many rheumatological diseases. Some are associated with HLA-B27 and no arthritic symptoms; others are associated with ankylosing spondylitis, reactive arthritis, juvenile chronic arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease.
Uveitis is considered an ophthalmic emergency. Initially, it is generally treated with topical eye drops or oral corticosteroids
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