Valproic acid (carboxylic acid derivative):
• eg valproic acid, sodium salt of valproic acid, divalproex
• enhances activity of GABA, blocks Na+ ions in high frequency neurons, and suppresses Ca2+ influx through the T-type calcium channels
• used for absence seizures, but also effective for myoclonic, atonic and tonic-clonic seizures – also used for bipolar disorders and migraine
• adverse effects – nausea, vomiting, liver toxicity
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