Carbamazepine (iminostilbenes):
• inhibits propagation of impulse by blocking Na+ ions – only affects high frequency neurons by delaying the recovery of the sodium channels
• for simple and complex seizures (not effective against absence seizures) – also used for bipolar disorders
• needs to be introduced slowly to avoid sedation
• adverse effects – ataxia, nystagmus, dysarthria, vertigo, headache, sedation, anaemia

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