Noninvasive method and economic method  gives a large amount of information about status of kidneys and urinary tract as well as other diseases that may alteration composition of urine.

Analysis - visual
- chemical
- microscopic

Colour - normally pale yellow or light amber
- if cloudy or smoky  possible infection
- if colourless  overhydration, diuretic therapy, diabetes insipidus
- red/pink  haematouria, haemoglobinuria
- dark brown  sickle cell anaemia
- yellowish-brown to red presence of bile
- black  malaria, malignant melanoma
- green  Pseudomonas infection
- orange  restricted fluid intake; concentrated urine; fever

Odour - normally does not have a strong odour – maybe an aromatic ammonia smell
- sweet smell  ketones formed from low insulin levels  diabetes mellitus
- ‘offensive’/putrid odour  possible infection

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