Oncology

Wikis > General Medicine > Oncology

Cancer refers to a group of disorders and not a single disease.

Properties of neoplastic/cancer cells:
• the growth of the cells are unrestrained; the cells do not respond to the normal feedback mechanism that regulates healthy cell growth
• cells are invasive/they invade surrounding tissues (does not happen in normal circumstance – cells remain segregated)
• metastases can form (secondary tumours that appear at sites that are distant from the original or primary tumour); malignant cells breakaway from the original site and migrate via the lymphatic or circulation to other sites  new tumour
• cells can divide indefinitely, which normal cells cannot

Aetiology of cancer:
Cancer results from alteration to the cells DNA

Malignant vs Benign:

Generally malignant tumours are faster growing and invasive (rather than expansive).

Metastasis:
malignant cancerous cells can spread to sites distant from the primary site.
not in direct contact with cells of primary tumour
routes of metastasis:
direct spread into adjacent tissue
spread to site of lymphatic drainage
spread via vascular system
many case reports of tumours metastasising to foot – in some case’s foot symptoms where the presenting feature

Metastases can occur in the foot:
• case report of isolated foot metastasis from prostate cancer . Patient presented with foot pain 3 yrs after being treated for prostate cancer. Radiographs showed progressive sclerosis of the cuboid.

Staging/grading of Malignant lesions:
defines the extent and type of tumour
used as a guide to determine treatment and prognosis
based on clinical examination, biopsy, radiographic and/or surgical exploration

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