Longitudinal arch is an engineering myth - not possible.
Preoccupation with height of arch – (navicular drift/drop)
Changes in arch height in different foot types
Arch supports may have worked
Tripod model – weight is primarily borne by metatarsal heads 1 & 5 and the calcaneus .
A collapse of the anterior metatarsal arch has been considered as being related to pathology.
Anterior metatarsal arch in which metatarsal heads 2 to 4 are thought to be elevated has been clearly shown not to exist, especially with the use of modern plantar pressure measuring