A frequent cause of injury is a fixation of the foot during a rapid change in direction, making lower limb strains and sprains common. The sudden fixation of the shoe with movement of the foot within the shoe is a common cause of toe nail and blistering problems.
“Tennis leg” – rupture of musculotendonous junction of one of heads of gastrocnemius (usually medial). Used to be considered a tear of the plantaris muscle, but most involve gastrocnemius . Usually occurs when knee is suddenly extended with the foot in a dorsiflexed position sudden tear. Also occurs in activities other than tennis.
“Tennis toe” – pain in the region of nail of the first (maybe second) toes due to trauma between the foot and the end of the shoe. With good traction between the shoe and the surface foot slides forward in shoe trauma.
Heel toe running is common in tennis assume that need some of the features of a running shoe, but landing on the forefoot is common in the better tennis players more forefoot shock attenuation – may not be needed in less experienced tennis players. Side-to-side forces in tennis are greater upper needs to hold the foot in place on top of the sole during the sudden changes of direction (need thicker and stronger uppers than running shoes). Frictional characteristics of shoe-surface are an important consideration. Kinematic studies of different tennis players and different tennis shoes has shown that each subject responded differently to each shoe .
An orthoses that is too rigid a device may restrict some of the rapid side to side motions that are needed in tennis, but more rigid devices may be needed to control excessive motion, depending on the force that causes the motion orthoses prescription may have to be a compromise.