Intervention strategies can be aimed at the host, the pathogenic agent or the environment.
Levels of Prevention:
Primary prevention – prevent specific diseases (eg prevent immune destruction of pancreatic beta cells in diabetes; immunisation for childhood diseases; cessation of smoking)
Secondary prevention – early diagnosis and prompt treatment (eg screening for diabetes; breast examination)
Tertiary prevention – treatment and rehabilitation of disease (eg laser surgery for eye disease in diabetes)
Agent – identify and eliminate
Environment – eg housing standards; nutrition; working conditions; water supply; etc
Host (ie humans) – eg improved nutrition; immunization; behaviours; screening for at risk