• promote release of norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin from neurons in CNS and periphery (most of effects are from release of norepinephrine)
• increase alertness, reduce fatigue, elevate mood – also get euphoria, an increase in motor activity and ‘talkativeness’; reduction in performance of tasks from fatigue improves
• in heart – increases AV conduction, heart rate and force of contraction; in vessels  vasoconstriction (due to release of norepinephrine from sympathetic neurons)
• long term use  dependence
• adverse effects – overstimulation of CNS (insomnia, restlessness); weight loss (suppresses appetite); dysrhythmias; psychoses
• indications – attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder; narcolepsy (promote arousal); obesity (appetite suppression)

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