Used to assess kidney disease, acid-base balance, and disorders of bone and calcium
Normally 2.6-4.9mg/100ml
Decreased  chronic antacid ingestion; alcoholism, osteomalacia, acute gout, renal tubular disease, vomiting and diarrhoea, infection/sepsis, respiratory alkalosis, starvation
Increased  hypoparathyroidism, renal disease/failure, liver disease, bone metastasis, dehydration, acromegaly, diabetic ketoacidosis, respiratory acidosis, lactic acidosis, sarcoidosis

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