Used to assess kidney disease, acid-base balance, and disorders of bone and calcium
Decreased chronic antacid ingestion; alcoholism, osteomalacia, acute gout, renal tubular disease, vomiting and diarrhoea, infection/sepsis, respiratory alkalosis, starvation
Increased hypoparathyroidism, renal disease/failure, liver disease, bone metastasis, dehydration, acromegaly, diabetic ketoacidosis, respiratory acidosis, lactic acidosis, sarcoidosis
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