Normally 8.2-10.5 mg/100ml. Used as assess bone disorders, coagulation problems, endocrine disorders, acid-base balance, cardiac arrythmias, muscle disorders
Increased  bone disease (Paget’s, metastatic), hyperparathyroidism; immobilisation; vitamin D intoxication; sarcoidosis; dehydration
Decrease  neuromuscular excitability  tetany – seen in hypoparathyroidism; malabsorption, Vitamin D deficiency, chronic renal failure, pancreatitis, hypoalbuminaemia
Levels in serum have an inverse relationship to phosphorous levels.

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