Foot & Ankle Specialist

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Foot & Ankle Specialist

Foot & Ankle Specialist is a bimonthly publication that started in 2008 and is published by SAGE Publications Ltd and is edited by Gregory C. Berlet, MD and Lowell Weil, Jr. DPM. The publishers describe it as:

Foot & Ankle Specialist (FAS) is a peer-reviewed bi-monthly journal offering clinical information for foot and ankle caregivers. Written and edited by orthopaedic surgeons and podiatrists, FAS offers the latest techniques and advancements in foot and ankle treatment through research reports and reviews, technical perspectives, case studies, and other evidence-based articles

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Google Scholar Metrics: 9
ISSN: 1938-6400

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Podiatry and Related Journals:
Clinics in Podiatric Medicine and SurgeryDiabetic Foot & AnkleDiabetic Foot CanadaEuropean Journal of Podiatry / Revista Europea de PodologíaExtremitas
Foot & Ankle InternationalFoot & Ankle SpecialistFoot & ShoeFoot and Ankle ClinicsFoot and Ankle Quarterly
Foot and Ankle SurgeryFootwear ScienceFuß & SprunggelenkJournal of Clinical Research on Foot & AnkleJournal of Diabetic Foot Complications
Journal of Foot and AnkleJournal of Foot and Ankle ResearchJournal of Korean Foot and Ankle SocietyJournal of the American Podiatric Medicial AssociationJSM Foot & Ankle
Lower Extremity ReviewMédecine et Chirurgie du PiedOrthopädie SchuhtechnikPodiatry ManagementPodiatry Today
Podología ClínicaPodologieRevue du podologueTechniques in Foot & Ankle SurgeryThe Foot
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Foot & Ankle OrthopaedicsFoot & Ankle: StudiesCanadian PodiatristInternational Journal of Foot and AnkleThe Diabetic Foot Journal
Podiatric Medical ReviewRevista Internacional de Ciencias PodológicasRevista Internacional de PodologiaAdvance Research on Foot & AnklePodosophia
NOFA JournalElectronic Journal of Foot and Ankle SurgeryScientific Journal of the Foot & AnkleThe Northern Ohio Foot & Ankle Foundation Journal
Discontinued Journals:
Australasian Journal of Podiatry MedicineBioMechanicsJournal of Podiatric Medical EducationThe ChiropodistBritish Journal of Podiatric Medicine
Current Podiatric Medicine
Other Journals:
Biomechanics JournalsDermatology JournalsDiabetes JournalsOrthopaedic JournalsOrthopaedic Journals
Sports Medicine JournalsTeaching and Learning JournalsWound Management JournalsPhysical Therapy Journals

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Foot & Ankle Specialist, Ahead of Print. <br/>Background. Syndesmotic disruption occurs in 20% of ankle fractures and requires anatomical reduction and stabilization to maximize outcomes. Although screw breakage is often asymptomatic, the breakage location can be unpredictable and result in painful bony erosion. The purpose of this investigation is to report early clinical and radiographic outcomes of patients who underwent syndesmotic fixation using a novel metal screw designed with a controlled break point. Methods. We performed a retrospective review of all patients who underwent syndesmotic fixation utilizing the R3lease Tissue Stabilization System (Paragon 28, Denver, CO) over a 12-month period. Demographic and screw-specific data were obtained. Postoperative radiographs were reviewed, and radiographic parameters were measured. Screw loosening or breakage was documented. Results. 18 patients (24 screws) met inclusion criteria. The mean follow-up was 11.7 months (range = 6.0-14.7 months). 5/24 screws (21%) fractured at the break point. No screw fractured at another location, nor did any fracture prior to resumption of weight bearing; 19 screws did not fracture, with 8/19 intact screws (42.1%) demonstrating loosening. There was no evidence of syndesmotic diastasis or mortise malalignment on final follow-up. No screws required removal during the study period. Conclusion. This study provides the first clinical data on a novel screw introduced specifically for syndesmotic fixation. At short-term follow up, there were no complications and the R3lease screw provided adequate fixation to allow healing and prevent diastasis. Although initial results are favorable, longer-term follow-up with data on cost comparisons and rates of hardware removal are needed to determine cost-effectiveness relative to similar implants.Level of Evidence: Level IV: Retrospective case series
Foot & Ankle Specialist, Ahead of Print. <br/>We present a modification to prior Achilles tendon repair techniques that utilizes readily available noncommercial instrumentation, mini-open incisions, and supine positioning, thus maximizing surgical efficiencies and reducing complications. In our experience, this is a safe and effective technique that minimizes anesthetic requirements and operating room time.Levels of Evidence: Level V, expert opinion
Foot & Ankle Specialist, Ahead of Print. <br/>Background: Tibiotalocalcaneal (TTC) arthrodesis implementing adjunctive allografts is a method of limb salvage for patients with complex hindfoot osseous deficits, though outcome results are limited. The purposes of this study were to assess functional and radiographic outcomes after TTC arthrodesis with femoral head allograft and retrospectively identify prognostic factors. Methods: The authors reviewed 24 TTC arthrodesis procedures with bulk femoral head allografts performed by a single surgeon from 2004 to 2016. Radiographic union at the ankle and subtalar joints along with stability of the allograft were assessed. Patients who had clinically successful arthrodeses were contacted to score the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure—Activities of Daily Living (FAAM-ADL) questionnaire, Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for pain, and Short Form-12 (SF-12) at a mean of 58.0 months (range, 28-102) postoperatively. Results: Complete radiographic union of involved joints was achieved in 15 patients (63%) and in 75% (36/48) of all joints; 21 ankles (88%) were assessed to be radiographically stable at final follow-up. Three patients (13%) underwent revision arthrodesis at a mean of 18.9 months postoperatively, and 21 patients (88%) did not require additional surgery as of final follow-up. Patients significantly improved to a mean FAAM-ADL score of 71.5 from 36.3 (P < .001). The mean VAS for pain significantly improved from 77.2 to 32.9 (P < .001). Male sex (P = .08) and a lateral operative approach (P = .03) both resulted in worse outcomes. Conclusion: Use of a femoral head allograft with TTC arthrodesis can offer improved functional scores and sustained radiographic outcomes.Level of Evidence: Level IV: Case series
Foot & Ankle Specialist, Ahead of Print. <br/>Foot and ankle surgeons routinely prescribe diagnostic imaging that exposes patients to potentially harmful ionizing radiation. It is unclear how well patients understand the radiation to which they are exposed. In this study, 946 consecutive new patients were surveyed regarding medical imaging and radiation exposure prior to their first appointment. Respondents compared the amount of radiation associated with chest X-rays (CXRs) with various types of foot and ankle imaging. Results were compared with actual values of radiation exposure from the published literature. Of 946 patients surveyed, 841 (88.9%) participated. Most had private insurance (82.8%) and a bachelor’s degree or higher (60.6%). Most believed that foot X-ray, ankle X-ray, “low dose” foot and ankle computed tomography (CT) scan (alluding to cone-beam CT), and traditional foot and ankle CT scan contain similar amounts of ionizing radiation to CXR. This contradicts the published literature that suggests that the actual exposure to patients is 0.006, 0.006, 0.127, and 0.833 CXR equivalents of radiation, respectively. Of patients who had undergone an X-ray, 55.9% thought about the issue of radiation prior to the study, whereas 46.1% of those undergoing a CT scan considered radiation prior to the exam. Similarly, 35.2% and 27.6% reported their doctor having discussed radiation with them prior to obtaining an X-ray and CT scan, respectively. Patients greatly overestimate the radiation exposure associated with plain film X-rays and cone-beam CT scans of the foot and ankle, and may benefit from increased counseling regarding the relatively low radiation exposure associated with these imaging modalities.Level of Evidence: Level III: Prospective questionnaire
Foot & Ankle Specialist, Ahead of Print. <br/>Objective:To describe the imaging findings of patients treated with subchondroplasty (SCP) of the ankle and hindfoot. Materials and Methods: Eighteen patients (10 men, 8 women; age mean 43.1 years [range 20.1-67.7 years]) underwent ankle and hindfoot SCP at a single center over a 14-month period. Imaging data were reviewed retrospectively by 2 radiologists by consensus interpretation, including preoperative radiography (18), computed tomography (CT) (11), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (13) and postoperative radiography (10), CT (4), and MRI (6). Follow-up imaging was acquired 1 month to 1.6 years following SCP. Results: Indications for SCP included symptomatic bone marrow lesions (BMLs) secondary to an osteochondral lesion (OCL) (16/18) or stress fracture (2/18). While focal radiodensity related to the SCP procedure was retrospectively identifiable on postoperative radiography in all except 1 case (10/11), postprocedural findings were not described by the interpreting radiologist in 6/11 cases. On CT, the average injected synthetic calcium phosphate (CaP) volume was 1.15 cm3 (SD = 0.33 cm3); mean CT attenuation of the injectate was 1220 HU (range 1058-1465 HU). In all patients who had pre- and postoperative MRI (5/18), BML size decreased on follow-up MRI. Extra-osseous extrusion of CaP was not seen on postoperative radiography, CT, or MRI. Conclusion: Physicians should be aware of the expanding preoperative indications and postoperative imaging findings of SCP, which is being performed with increasing frequency in the ankle and hindfoot.Levels of Evidence: Diagnostic, Level III: Retrospective cohort study
Foot & Ankle Specialist, Volume 12, Issue 3, Page 296-298, June 2019. <br/>
Foot & Ankle Specialist, Volume 12, Issue 3, Page 210-210, June 2019. <br/>
Foot & Ankle Specialist, Volume 12, Issue 3, Page 278-280, June 2019. <br/>
Foot & Ankle Specialist, Ahead of Print. <br/>Stress fractures of the proximal fifth metatarsal are common injuries in elite athletes. Fixation using an intramedullary screw represents the most popular surgery performed for treating these injuries, with excellent results in most cases. However, multiple reports in the literature highlight the possibility of painful hardware, usually related to the presence of the screw head, following intramedullary fixation In this case report, we outline 4 cases of professional athletes who developed lateral-based foot symptoms following complete healing of their surgically treated proximal fifth metatarsal fractures and were found to have significant cuboid edema on magnetic resonance images. We also outline recommendations regarding specific surgical technique considerations aiming to minimize this possible complication.Level of Evidence: Level V: Case report.
Foot & Ankle Specialist, Ahead of Print. <br/>Turf toe is a term used to describe myriad injuries to the metatarsophalangeal complex of the great toe, which have been associated with the introduction of artificial turf surfaces in sport. If not diagnosed early and treated properly, these injuries can result in chronic pain and loss of mobility. Accurate injury grading through physical exam and advanced imaging is essential to guide treatment, thereby minimizing long-term complications and maximizing an athlete’s recovery and return to play.Levels of Evidence: Level V
Foot & Ankle Specialist, Ahead of Print. <br/>Background. The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in posterior compartment muscle volume and intramuscular fat content following gastrocnemius recession in people with Achilles tendinopathy (AT). Methods. Eight patients diagnosed with unilateral recalcitrant AT and an isolated gastrocnemius contracture participated in this prospective cohort study. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed on both limbs of each participant before and 6 months following an isolated gastrocnemius recession. Involved limb muscle volumes and fat fractions (FFs) of the medial gastrocnemius, lateral gastrocnemius, and soleus muscle were normalized to the uninvolved limb. Preoperative to postoperative comparisons were made with Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Results. Soleus or lateral gastrocnemius muscle volumes or FFs were not significantly different between study time points. A significant difference was found in medial gastrocnemius muscle volume (decrease; P = .012) and FF (increase; P = .017). Conclusion. A major goal of the Strayer gastrocnemius recession, selective lengthening of the posterior compartment while preserving soleus muscle morphology, was supported. The observed changes isolated to the medial gastrocnemius muscle may reduce ankle plantarflexion torque capacity. Study findings may help inform selection of surgical candidates, refine anticipated outcomes, and better direct postoperative rehabilitation following gastrocnemius recession for AT.Levels of Evidence: Level IV: Prospective cohort study
Foot & Ankle Specialist, Ahead of Print. <br/>Although they occur frequently, diabetic toe ulcers (DTUs) are poorly investigated. Long-term antibiotics or toe amputation are the usual indications for complicated DTU treatment. Some authors reported good to excellent results following conservative surgery (CS) for recalcitrant or infected wounds; yet no systematic review has been published. Seven studies, comprising 290 patients with 317 ulcers, met the inclusion criteria of this meta-analysis. Three types of CS were found: resection arthroplasty of the interphalangeal joint, toe-sparing bone excision (internal pedal amputation), and distal Symes amputation. The meta-analytical results were as follows: healing rate of 98.3%, healing time of 6.8 ± 3.9 weeks, recurrence rate of 2.3%, wound dehiscence/recurrent infection rate of 6.4%, skin necrosis rate of 2.8%, and revision surgery rate of 7.4%. Subgroup analyses showed no significant differences in outcomes between recalcitrant ulcers and infected ulcers nor between surgery types. Significance was found in relation to ulcer location; when compared with the hallux, DTU on the lesser toes demonstrated better outcomes. Compared with the reported overall results of standard of care associated with antibiotics or toe amputation of complicated DTUs in the literature, CS seems to be a better option for the treatment of recalcitrant or infected DTUs.Levels of Evidence: Level III
Foot & Ankle Specialist, Ahead of Print. <br/>Background: Lesser metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) and plantar plate pathologies are commonly seen forefoot conditions. Traditional rebalancing techniques are commonly used but can have concerning adverse effects. The purpose of this study was to analyze the 1-year outcomes of a new technique consisting of anatomic repair of the plantar plate and collateral ligaments involving lesser MTPJs. Methodology: A retrospective cohort study of 50 consecutive patients treated with anatomic plantar plate and collateral ligament reconstruction were evaluated for lesser MTPJ imbalances between 2013 and 2016. The primary outcome was postoperative digital stability defined as a normal dorsal drawer test and normal paper pull-out test. Secondary outcomes included pre- and postoperative visual analogue scale pain measurements, MTPJ radiographic alignment, and ACFAS Forefoot module scores. Results: All patients had digital instability prior to the surgical intervention. Final follow-up revealed that 92% of patients showed improved digital stability, P = .0005. Multivariate regression found statistically significant improvement in pain reduction via the visual analogue scale of 51.2 mm (P < .0001) and ACFAS Forefoot module scores improved to 92 (P < .0001). The 45 joints with preoperative abnormal transverse plane deformity, had either complete (n = 29) or partial (n = 16) radiographic MTPJ correction. Conclusion: These results suggest that anatomic repair of lesser MTPJ improved digital stability, pain, function and radiographic alignment with greater than one year of follow-up.Levels of Evidence: Level IV: Retrospective cohort study
Foot & Ankle Specialist, Ahead of Print. <br/>Background. First metatarsophalangeal (MTP) arthrodesis is the “gold standard” treatment for hallux rigidus. Recently, there has been increased interest in new synthetic cartilage implants to preserve joint motion while eradicating pain. With current health care economics, the cost of a treatment is gaining particular importance. This study set out to perform a cost comparison between MTP arthrodesis and synthetic hydrogel implant to determine which treatment modality is more cost-effective based on direct aggregate costs. Study design. Economic and decision analysis. Methods. Studies in the available literature were analyzed to estimate hardware removal rates for MTP fusion and failure rates for a synthetic hydrogel implant and MTP fusion. Costs were determined by examining direct costs at a single institution for implants and data reported in the literature for operating room time. Sensitivity analysis and Monte Carlo simulation were performed to examine cost and measurement uncertainty. Results. Assuming a 4.76% MTP arthrodesis revision rate and 7.06% hardware removal rate, the total direct cost of MTP joint arthrodesis was $3632. Using a 9.2% failure rate with subsequent conversion to MTP arthrodesis, the total cost of synthetic hydrogel implant was $4565. Sensitivity analysis revealed that MTP fusion was more cost-effective even if the failure rate increased to 15% and synthetic hydrogel implant failure rate was 0%. The synthetic cartilage implant cost would have to be reduced 28% or approximately 200% the cost of MTP fusion implants to be comparable to MTP arthrodesis. Conclusion. Hallux rigidus treatment with a synthetic hydrogel implant resulted in a higher direct aggregate cost than MTP arthrodesis.Level of Evidence: Level II: Cost analysis
Foot & Ankle Specialist, Ahead of Print. <br/>Background. Hallux rigidus is the most prevalent arthritic condition of the foot. Treatment of end-stage disease traditionally consists of a first metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) arthrodesis; however, the use of a synthetic cartilage implant is becoming more common. With the high prevalence of disease and implementation of new treatment modalities, health care consumers should be aware of the costs associated with management. The purpose of this study was to determine access to the cost and variability in price of first MTPJ arthrodesis and synthetic cartilage implantation. Methods. Forty academic centers were contacted using a standardized patient script. The patient was a 59-year-old female who had failed conservative treatment of hallux rigidus. Each institution was contacted up to 3 times in an attempt to obtain a full bundled operative quote for a first MTPJ arthrodesis and synthetic cartilage implantation. Results. Twenty centers (50%) provided a quote for first MTPJ arthrodesis and 15 centers (38%) provided a quote for synthetic cartilage implantation. Only 14 centers (35%) were able to provide a quote for both procedures. The mean bundled price for MTPJ arthrodesis was $21 767 (range $8417 to $39 265). The mean bundled price for synthetic cartilage implantation was $21 546 (range $4903 to $74 145). There was no statistically significant difference between the bundled price for first MTPJ arthrodesis and synthetic cartilage implantation. Conclusions. There was limited availability of consumer prices for first MTPJ arthrodesis and synthetic implantation, thus impeding health care consumers’ decision making. There was a wide range of quotes for both procedures, indicating potential cost savings.Levels of Evidence: IV, basic science
Foot & Ankle Specialist, Ahead of Print. <br/>Introduction. The aim of the present study was to compare static and dynamic balance among professional athletes in football and basketball. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, 47 professional, male football and basketball players from Pro League in Iran participated. They were divided into 3 groups. Group 1 included 16 participants with history of grade 1 or 2 single ankle sprain within the past 6 months. Group 2 included 17 participants with recurrent ankle sprain. Group 3 included 14 participants without history of ankle sprain. Static and dynamic balance were measured by the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) and modified Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), respectively. Results. For the single-leg stance on a firm surface, group 2 scored errors with a high mean value of 3.94 compared with the other 2 groups, and the difference was statistically significant (P = .03). Significant differences in BESS scores are observed on both surfaces across the tandem limb between groups 2 and 3. Conclusion. The measures from the SEBTs may not reflect the balance performance especially in well-trained athletes who have a better balance when performing sport-related skills. However, BESS includes static postures, and it may reflect postural deficits better than dynamic tests in the more experienced athlete.Level of Evidence: Diagnostic, Level IV
Foot & Ankle Specialist, Ahead of Print. <br/>Background. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of ankle arthroscopy as a means for diagnosing syndesmotic reduction or malreduction and to determine anatomical landmarks for diagnosis. Methods. Six matched-pair cadavers (n = 12) with through-knee amputations were studied. Component parts of the syndesmosis and distal 10 cm of the interosseous membrane (IOM) were sectioned in each. The 12 specimens were divided into 2 groups: 6 specimens in the in-situ group fixed with suture button technique and 6 specimens in the malreduced group rigidly held with a 3.5-mm screw. Specimens were randomized to undergo diagnostic arthroscopy by 3 fellowship-trained foot and ankle orthopaedic surgeons in a blinded fashion. Surgeons were asked to determine if the syndesmosis was reduced or malreduced and provide arthroscopic measurements of their findings. Results. Of 36 arthroscopic evaluations, 34 (94%) were correctly diagnosed. Arthroscopic measurement of 3.5 mm diastasis or greater at the anterior aspect of the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis correlated with a posteriorly malreduced fibula. Arthroscopic evaluation of the Anterior inferior tibiofibular ligament (AITFL), IOM, Posterior inferior tibiofibular ligament (PITFL), lateral fibular gutter, and the tibia/fibula relationship were found to be reliable landmarks in determining syndesmotic reduction. An intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for interrater reliability of 1.00 was determined for each of these landmarks between 2 surgeons (P < .001). The ICCs between 2 surgeons’ measurements and the computed tomography measurements were found to be 0.896 (P value < .001). Conclusions. Ankle arthroscopy is a reliable method to assess syndesmotic relationship when reduced in situ or posteriorly malreduced 10 mm.Levels of Evidence: Level V: Cadaveric
Foot & Ankle Specialist, Ahead of Print. <br/>Between January 1, 2011, and January 1, 2017, an orthopaedic foot and ankle surgeon performed tibiotalar arthrodesis on 221 patients. Thirty-two were included in this study. Inclusion criteria included patients with at least one risk factor for nonunion and/or malunion, isolated anterior ankle arthrodesis with plate fixation, patients older than 18, and a minimum of 1-year follow-up. Risk factors were avascular necrosis of the talus, severe segmental bone defect, smoking, inflammatory arthropathy, coronal deformity greater than 15°, diabetes mellitus, septic nonunion, failed ankle arthrodesis, and body mass index greater than 35. Functional outcome questionnaires (Ankle Osteoarthritis Score [AOS] and Foot Function Index [FFI]) were collected at the latest visit or by phone. Twenty-six (26/32, 81.2%) patients included in the study had computed tomography images available for review at an average of 3.2 months after surgery. The rate of successful arthrodesis was 93.8% (30/32) at an average of 78 days. Overall, 14 patients (14/32, 43.8%) developed a postoperative complication, including 1 patient that had a delayed nonunion and 2 patients that proceeded to nonunion. Twenty-three patients (23/32, 71.9%) completed the functional outcome questionnaires at an average of 26.8 months. Mean AOS and FFI scores improved significantly postoperatively (P < .001). Sagittal tibiotalar and coronal tibiotalar alignment improved significantly in patients with severe preoperative deformity (P < .001). Tibiotalar arthrodesis with anterior plate fixation in a high-risk cohort results in high union rates and significantly improved functional outcomes.Levels of Evidence: Therapeutic, Level IV: Prospective, comparative trial.
Foot & Ankle Specialist, Ahead of Print. <br/>Background. Recent studies have raised concerns regarding the usefulness of the visual analogue scale (VAS) as an effective outpatient patient-reported outcome measure (PROM), with disparate scores reported during the same encounter to a nurse versus physician. The purpose of present study was to assess the VAS reported by new patient referrals to 2 different physicians of varying training levels (resident, attending), during the same initial outpatient encounter. Methods. One hundred and one patients treated by a single foot and ankle surgeon were included in the retrospective cohort. Each patient was asked to rate their pain intensity by a resident, and then by the attending surgeon using a standard horizontal VAS 0 to 10, from “no pain” to the “worst pain.” Differences in reported scores were analyzed. Results. Overall, the mean VAS reported to the residents (4.97 ± 2.75) and the attending surgeon (5.02 ± 2.71) were not significantly different (P = .61). On the 11-point scale, the mean difference accounted for only 0.05 points. Conclusion. Taken into consideration with previous studies, the data suggest collection personnel may influence the reported VAS, possibly owing to patients’ preferences and perception of their care. Although the exact reasons remain unclear, our findings lend credence to the previous concerns expressed regarding the subjective nature of the VAS.Levels of Evidence: Level III: Comparative study
Foot & Ankle Specialist, Ahead of Print. <br/>Introduction. The open, lateral sinus tarsi approach is the most commonly used technique for subtalar arthrodesis. In this cadaver study, we measured the maximum joint surface area that could be denuded of cartilage and subchondral bone through this approach. Methods. Nine fresh frozen above-knee specimens were used. The subtalar joint was accessed through a lateral incision from the fibular malleolus distally over the sinus tarsi area to the level of the calcaneocuboid joint. Cartilage was removed from the anterior, middle, and posterior facets of the calcaneus and talus using an osteotome and/or curette. ImageJ was used to calculate the surface areas of undenuded cartilage. Results. No specimens were 100% denuded of cartilage on all 6 measured surfaces. The greatest percentages of unprepared surface area remained on the middle facet of the talus (18.66%) and the middle facet of the calcaneus (14.51%). The anterior facet of the talus was 100% denuded in 6 specimens, while the middle and posterior facets were 100% denuded in 3 specimens. The anterior facet of the calcaneus was also 100% denuded in 6 specimens, while the middle and posterior facets were 100% denuded in 3 and 4 specimens, respectively. The average total unprepared surface area per specimen was 8.67%. Conclusion. The lateral sinus tarsi approach provides adequate denudation of cartilage of the subtalar joint in most cases. Total percentage of unprepared joint surface may range from approximately 2% to 18%. Future clinical studies are warranted to assess whether this technique results in optimal union rates.Levels of Evidence:V, Cadaveric Study

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