Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

Wikis > General Medicine > Respiratory Diseases > Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD):

Also COLD (chronic obstructive lung disease) and COAD (chronic obstructive airway disease)
COPD – collective term covers chronic bronchitis, emphysema and some cases of chronic asthma. Defined as a slowly progressive reduction in maximum expiratory flow and slow forced emptying of the lungs.

Smoking is most common cause. Other risk factors include airway hyperreactivity, respiratory infections, occupational exposures, air pollution, poor nutrition, lower socioeconomic status, crowded living environment

Clinical features:
If mild  “smokers cough” (chronic persistent cough); exertional dyspnoea
If moderate  exertional dyspnoea, wheeze, cough, may have sputum
If severe  breathlessness, wheeze, cough, swollen legs

Reduce bronchial irritation (stop smoking; avoidance of dusty atmospheres)
Antibiotic treatment of infection
Gentle aerobic exercise to improve endurance
Oxygen therapy

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