Hyperpigmentation

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Hyperpigmentation

Freckles/Ephelides:
Very common autosomal dominant small (<5mm), dark to light brown macules on sun exposed skin; become more prominent during summer; appear in first 3-5 years; usually have red or blond hair.Melanocytic naevi/moles: Benign proliferation of melanocytes.Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation: Many inflammatory conditions may intensify skin pigmentationLentigo: Small, discrete brown to black macule, usually 1-5mm. Resemble freckles.Café au Lait Spots (CALS)/Café au Lait Macules (CALM): Well-circumscribed light brown oval macules with irregular border Diagnostic of neurofibromatosis type 1 (von Recklinghausen’s) – also occurs in other syndromes (eg Silver-Russell syndrome)Addison’s disease: Adrenocortical insufficiency  skin hyperpigmentationHaemochromatosis: Iron deposition disorder  bronze, blue-gray or brown-black hyperpigmentationHaemosiderinosis: Due to deposition of haemosiderin in skin from extravasation of red blood cells  phagocytosis  release of pigment  skin appears a rusty red brown, especially around lower leg and ankle – sometimes dorsum of foot. Usually associated with venous disease.

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