Equipment & environmental related errors/risk factors
Use of protective equipment:
Eg helmets in American football; shin protectors in soccer; mouthguards in contact sports; shoulder padding in rugby.
• inadequate motion control when indicated
• inadequate shock absorption/cushioning when indicated
• too much shock absorption/cushioning too much motion
• shoe worn malignment abnormal biomechanics
• using unidirectional shoe (eg running) for multidirectional sport (eg tennis)
• shoe of wrong fit (length and width)
• change from an old worn shoe to a new shoe
Use of orthoses/use of inappropriate orthoses/not using orthoses/using appropriate orthoses in inappropriate activity/using new orthoses ‘too much too soon’.
• shock absorption (concrete, asphalt, grass, sand, artificial turf etc)
• uneven terrain (road camber, pot holes, tree root)
• traction – too much injury due to stress on proximal structures
– too little slipping and falls injury