Indicated when oral intake fails to meet nutritional needs.
• complete nutritional feeding solutions for patients who cannot consume sufficient calories in, for example, gastrointestinal problems ,burns, cancer, physical impairments etc.
• given orally or by nasogastric tube feed
• safer than total parenteral nutrition
• used to provide nutrition when gastrointestinal tract cannot be used
• administered through peripheral or central vein
• TPN (total parental nutrition) indicated for preoperativly in the malnourished, during postoperative complications (eg sepsis, GI stasis), short bowel syndrome, GI disease (eg Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, pancreatitis), major trauma (eg burns, intensive care patients)
• especially formulated agents are infused
• electrolyte agents are used to replace and maintain levels of electrolytes
• act a replacements when deficiency states exist
• used in deficiency states