Morphine

Morphine:
• principal alkaloid of the opium poppy
• agonist opioid
• standard by which other analgesics are compared to
• obtained from opium poppy
• powerful analgesic – also sedation, reduction of anxiety, euphoria, cough suppression, bowel motility and respiratory depression,
• used for pain relief (eg postoperative, cancer, delivery) and preoperatively for sedation – other senses and consciousness are not lost
• can be administered by most routes
• mechanism is by mimicking action of endogenous opioids at mu receptors  modulate pain perception
• adverse effects – respiratory depression; constipation; hypotension; urinary retention; suppression of cough; nausea and vomiting

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