• opioid agonist
• low efficacy oral opoid  used for mild to moderate pain; available in sulphate and phosphate salts
• usually oral (well absorbed orally) – may be used with aspirin for pain relief (both produce pain relief by different mechanisms  greater pain relief)
• converted to morphine by cytochome P4SO isoenzyme CYP2D6 (this enzyme is lacking in some people  drug ineffective)
• eg Aspalgin®, Codalgin®, Codapane®, Panadeine®, Panamax®
• most actions are1/7th to 1/10th of morphine
• excreted by kidneys
• used in cough mixtures as has antitussive effect (dose is 10mg compared to analgesic dose of 30mg)
• depresses the effect of cough centre
• dependence rare, but can occur

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