3 types of abnormal reflexes: 1) Asymmetry of response
2) Absence of response
3) Persistence of response

Deep tendon reflexes:
• Patellar and achilles
• Can be variable due to the corticospinal pathways not being fully developed
• Asymmetry is more important than degree of presence or exaggeration

Plantar response or Babinski’s sign/reflex:
Stroke plantar surface along outer border with blunt object – a positive response is spreading of the toes with hallux dorsiflexion
Normal from birth to age 6 years (sometimes up to 2 years)
After one year this reflex should not exist – response should be plantarflexion
If persists  disorder of pyramidal system

Oral reflex:
Finger placed in infant’s mouth  should initiate sucking reflex

Moro reflex/startle:
Present from birth - should disappear by 5 months.

Grasp reflex:
Fingers should automatically grasp object placed in had – also foot should respond similarly.
Present up to about age 9 months.

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