Gross motor abilities

Gross motor abilities:

Standing posture:
Adult posture is not developed until 10-11 years; <7 years have a protruding abdomen; <8-9 years scapulae winged; <10-11 years lumbar lordosis is exaggeratedWalking forward along a straight: >5 years  place heel immediately in front of toe of opposite foot; >7 years and up to 9 years  some deviations from straight line would be normal; note any persistent deviation to one side

Walking on toes:
Can do >3 years; >4 years can run on toes

Walking on heel:
Can do >3 years

Jumping:
Ask child to keep feet together and jump 20 times along the floor; note arm movement; is balance maintained; do feet move together in time and space; note symmetry.
At 2 years a child begins to jump, usually with one foot leading; at 3 years jumps with two feet together; by 5 years should be more rhythmical and efficient with assistive upper limb movements.

Hopping:
At 3 years some children can hop and generally on the preferred leg; by 4 years, 5 to 8 hops is normal; by 5 years, 9 to 10 is normal; by 6 years can hop on the spot; by 7 to 8 years can hop on either leg

Running:
At 18 months, stiff, flat footed, little knee movement, arms held up; by 2 years – more flexibility at knees and ankle but little spring; by 2 to 3 years – true running with a period when both feet are off the ground, longer stride and heel usually contacts the ground first; by 3 – 5 years – extended airborne phase, smooth progression with less vertical movement; knees bend; reciprocal arm movement; by 5 years – body leans forward, arms swing in straight line with elbow bent.

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