Genu Valgum / Knock Knees
Separation between the ankles when standing with the knees are together, indicates genu valgum.
Part of normal development from age 2-4 to ages 6-7.
When standing intermalleolar distance can be measured in cm or fingerbreadths.
Pathological causes:- rickets, previous metaphyseal fracture, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia; Ollier’s disease; dyschondrostosis
Excessive pronation of the foot could be an aetiological factor in the development of genu valgum, but there is no evidence to support or contradict this hypothesis
Widely assumed in the literature to lead to excessive foot pronation due to centre of gravity being more medial to the STJ, but the centre of gravity is an imaginary point and cannot apply any pronatory or supinatory moments to the foot. When the feet are wider a[art (as in genu valgum), there is a supinatory force being applied at the STJ due to frictional forces from the ground and the angle that the valgus angle that the leg has with the ground. The foot may still be pronated (for another reason) and be part of the aetiology of genu valgum.