Developmental Milestones

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Developmental Milestones

Growth and development needs to be understood to monitor a child’s progress, to identify delays, and to advise parents.

1 month:
Spontaneous motor activity generalised; holds head up slightly when prone and can rotate head to either side; poor supine head control; beginning to notice surroundings; follow objects to midline; rounded back (flexed) when sitting; holds hands tightly clasped; reciprocal kicking when supine

2 months:
Motor activity generalised; smiles and coos socially; follows objects past midline; raises head and chest when prone – can hold position.

3 months:
Follows well with eyes; may wave at toy; beginning to regard hands – can hold hands in front of face; Good control of head when prone and looking around – can follow an object; Head control improved when in sitting position; Moro’s reflex disappearing; Smiles – coos in a more sustained fashion; kicking when supine

4 months:
Beginning to reach for toys symmetrically; Regards toys and may pull them to mouth; removes cloth from face; control of head good when sitting – looks around; plays with hands; laughs; rolls from prone to supine

6 months:
Reaches with either hand and begins to transfer objects; elevates trunk with elbow extension; rolls over; may sit briefly when placed in sitting position; laughs and plays with examiner; rolls from supine to prone and back; can bring feet to mouth

8 months:
Sits alone and unsupported – can raise self to sitting; beginning to creep reciprocally; vocalises with infantile rhythms and polysyllabic vowel sounds; regards self in mirror

10 months:
Crawls reciprocally; pulls up on rail; may begin to cruise with external support; uses thumb and index finger in opposition; may say ‘mama’ or ‘dada’; feeds self biscuits and holds own bottle.

12 months:
Walks with support; stands alone; places cube in cup; tries to build tower of two cubes; may have two words in addition to ‘mama’ or ‘dada’; begins to feed self with fingers

15 months:
Walks alone; creeps upstairs; 4 to 5 word vocabulary; pats picture; drinks from a cup; beginning to feed self with a spoon; makes wants known by pointing or vocalising

18 months:
Walks well; sits on a chair; throws a ball; climbs on furniture; stacks 3 – 4 cubes; 10 word vocabulary; begins to identify pictures; pulls toys on string; may be toilet trained during day

2 years:
Runs well; negotiates steps one at a time; jump off low step; uses pronouns and 3 word sentences; feeds self with a spoon; refers to self by name; toilet trained during day; can kick ball forward and throw ball overhand

2.5 years:
Can jump of step with one foot landing; can mount a tricycle; undresses self partially; attempts to put on socks; draws horizontal or vertical lines but does not cross them; refers to self as ‘I’; knows full name; helps to put things away

3 years:
Alternates feet going up stairs; jumps off step with two feet landing; pedals tricycle; builds tower of cubes; names drawings; uses plurals and obeys propositional commands; feeds self well; buttons clothes and puts on shoes

4 years:
Runs and climbs well; walks downstairs alternating feet; hops on one foot; throws a ball overhead; attempts to catch a ball or kick it in the air; pedals tricycle rapidly; draws a man with head, trunk and arms or legs; counts 3 objects; names one or more colours

5 years:
Skips, alternating feet; draws man; copies a square, cross, and a circle; dresses and undresses without assistance; knows the name of 4 or more colours; counts to 10 or higher

6 years:
Draws a man with hands and clothes; repeats 4 digits; knows morning and afternoon; knows left from right

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