Language and speech

Language and speech:
Aphasia – acquired defect or loss of language function – due to injury to language centres in cerebral cortex (predominantly in left hemisphere); most often due to strokes, head injury and Alzheimer’s disease. Can be receptive aphasia (cannot understand language) or expressive aphasia (can understand verbal and written communication, but cannot organise concepts into words); also classified into motor or sensory aphasia
communicating with those with aphasia:
careful explanations of procedures, situations etc
avoid be patronising or treating them like a child
remain calm – they may be sensitive to expressions of annoyance
speak slowly; ask questions in such a way that they can be answered with a nod (instruct them in non verbal responses)
speak about things that they are familiar with or they are interested in
use visual aids and cues
organise the environment to be predictable
show interest in them as a person
Dysarthria – due to weakness or incoordination of speech muscles; speech sounds slow, weak or uncoordinated; most commonly due to Parkinson’s disease, ALS, MS, myasthenia gravis, cerebral palsy, head injury.
disorders of pragmatics/right hemisphere communication disorders

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