Lymphokines (released by T cells):
• macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) – inhibits migration of macrophages away from site of antigen deposition
• interleukin 2 (Il-2) – stimulates proliferation of B and T cells; activates NK cells
• interleukin 4 (Il-4) – stimulates activated B cells and the formation of plasma cells; promotes secretion of IgE from plasma cells
• interleukin 5 (Il-5) – stimulates B cells; promotes secretion of IgM and IgA from antibodies from plasma cells
• gamma interferon – makes tissue cells more resistant to viral infection; activates NK cells; stimulates the synthesis and expression of class I and II MHC proteins;
• transforming growth factor beta – inhibits the activation and proliferation of T and B cells; suppresses immune response
• lymphotoxin (LT) – causes DNA fragmentation
• perforin – causes cell lysis
• tumour necrosis factor (TNF) produced by macrophages

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