Condition of decreased bone mass  increased radiolucency

Jhamaria’s Calcaneal Index:
Evaluates compressive and tensile trabecular pattern of calcaneus
0 = severe osteoporosis; 5 = normal

Rule of Thirds & Halves:
general guideline is based on cortical thickness of mid shaft of second metatarsal
both cortices = 2/3rd of total width; trabecular bone = 1/3rd
after age of 40  both cortices = 1/2 total width; trabecular bone = 1/2

Mnemonic for differential diagnosis of generalised osteoporosis – VINDICATE:
V – Vascular (anaemia)
D – Drugs (eg steroids; heparin) or diet (eg malnutrition)
I – Idiopathic
C – Congenital
T – Toxic (eg alcoholism)
E – Endocrine or metabolic (eg age; postmenopausal; diabetes)

Main causes of regional osteoporosis:
• immobilisation
• disuse
• reflex sympathetic dystrophy
• Transient regional osteoporosis

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