Bone Densitometry

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Bone Densitometry

Several techniques to quantify the amount of bone in skeleton.

Conventional x-ray:
• evaluate for cortical thinning and intracortical porosity
• estimated than 30% of bone loss is needed before visible on x-ray
• Singh index

• predetermined dimensions at one or more skeletal sites are measured

Radiographic absorptiometry:
standardised x-ray is compared with aluminium reference wedge

Single x-ray absorptiometry (SXA):
• a collimated photon beam is used to measure photon attenuation
• usually calcaneus

Dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA):

Quantitative computed tomography:
estimates bone density in cortical and trabecular bone
usually measured in vertebrae

Quantitative ultrasound:

Quantitative MRI:
• used for research, but nit routine clinical practice (due to costs)

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