Interstitial lung diseases

Wikis > General Medicine > Respiratory Diseases > Interstitial lung diseases

Interstitial lung diseases:

Groups of diseases due to thickening of alveolar walls with inflammatory cells and exudate

Can be from:
acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
granulomas (eg sarcoidosis)
haemorrhage
fibrosis (eg fibrosing alveloitis)
exposure to organic dusts (eg Farmer lung)
exposure to non-organic dusts (eg asbestosis, silicosis)

Sarcoidosis:
Multisystem granulomatous disease.
See Rheumatology chapter

Fibrosing Alveolitis (CFA):
Unknown aetiology. Up to a third are associated with connective tissue diseases.
Characterised by increase in inflammatory cells in alveoli and interstitium and some pulmonary fibrosis.

Clinical features – exertional dyspnoea, dry cough, malaise, weight loss, joint symptoms, nail clubbing, cyanosis

Treatment - immunosuppression

Extrinsic allergic alveolitis:
Inhaled antigen  hypersensitivity reaction in lungs in those that are sensitised.

Clinical features – 4-8 hrs after exposure  fever, malaise, dry cough, dyspnoea; chronic  increasing malaise, weight loss, exertional dyspnoea, crepitations

Treatment – avoid exposure to allergens; steroids

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