Irreversible chronic abnormal focal bronchial dilation act as “sumps” for infected mucous destruction of bronchial walls. Can be confined to one segment or diffuse.
Three forms – cylindrical/fusiform, varicose, saccular/cystic
Congenital (cystic fibrosis, ciliary dysfunction syndromes); pneumonia; tuberculosis; foreign body; bronchial neoplasm; measles
Often asymptomatic; exacerbations in winter with fever, cough, purulent sputum, haemoptysis, dyspnoea, pleuritic chest pain, wheeze, nail clubbing
Twice daily postural drainage
Surgical excision (rare)