Personality Disorders

Personality Disorders (PD)

Defined as persistent, life long, deeply ingrained maladaptive patterns of inner experiences and behaviour that are expressions of the individuals lifestyle and deviate significantly from the expectations of their culture. Affects up to 10% of adult population (most cases mild).

Aetiology unknown

Types (grouped by DSM-IV into 3 clusters):
Cluster A (odd/eccentric):
1) Paranoid PD (cold effect, distrust, suspicious, preoccupation with doubts about fidelity of spouse, bears grudges, hypersensitivity to rebuffs)
2) Schizoid PD (social withdrawal, limited range of emotions, indifference to praise or criticism, aloof)
3) Schizotypal PD (social and interpersonal deficits, unusual perceptions, vague thinking, suspiciousness, social anxiety)
Cluster B (flamboyant/dramatic):
1) Borderline PD (impulsive) (unstable interpersonal relationships, poor self image, self damaging behaviours, suicidal tendencies or self mutilating behaviours)
2) Histrionic PD (narcissistic) (shallow emotions, attention seeking, grandiosity, exploitive actions)
3) Dissocial PD (antisocial) (disregard for rights or safety of others, gross irresponsibility, low frustration tolerance and aggression threshold, deceitfulness, impulsivity, prone to blame others)
Cluster C (fearful/anxious):
1) Avoidant PD (anxious) (persistent feelings of tension, inadequacy, social inhibition, unwilling to get involved with people unless certain of being liked)
2) Dependent PD (asthenic) (submissive and clinging behaviour, fears of separation, difficulty in making decisions without excessive advice, difficulty initiating projects)

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