Protrusion of the abdominal contents through the abdominal wall.
• inguinal hernia (protrudes through inguinal canal extends into subcutaneous tissue or scrotum)
• femoral hernia (through femoral canal)
• periumbilical hernia (through abdominal wall, around umbilicus)
• diaphragmatic/hiatal hernia (through hiatus of diaphragm extends into thoracic cavity)