Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus (DI):
Due to deficiency of ADH/vasopressin – may be temporary or chronic. Characterised by persistent excessive quantities of urine and excessive thirst (from impaired resorption of water).

Aetiology:
Primary  unknown cause
Secondary  due to pathologic lesions (eg cranial injuries, tumours, vascular lesions, infections)

Two types – cranial (deficient ADH production) and nephrogenic (renal tubules are unresponsive to ADH)

Clinical features:
Polydipsia, polyuria and nocturia. Insidious or abrupt onset.
May progress to dehydration and hypovolaemia.
Diagnosis is ‘water deprivation test’

DIDMOAD Syndrome:
Diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy and deafness.

Treatment:
Hormone replacement therapy (vasopressin injections or nasal sprays).
Diuretics can reduce polyuria

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