Usually occur in older age groups (most >40yrs) – especially obese (in 70%) (however, incidence in child is assumed to be increasing due to increased prevalence of childhood obesity).
Onset is gradual and initial/early diagnosis is often missed. Classical osmotic signs of thirst, polyuria, nocturia and weight loss are not always present in Type 2 – often start with fatigue and malaise. Blurring of vision may be present. Recurrent infections may precede diagnosis. Many cases are asymptomatic and are detected by screening, opportunistic testing or after presentation with, for example, a myocardial infarct.
Symptoms of hyperglycaemia are long standing and generally mild the diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes occurs at a late stage in the pathological process. Up to 20% may have one/some of the tissue damage complications of diabetes present at time of diagnosis. 50% have hypertension.
No ketoacidosis or ketonuria
May have family history
Do not need insulin for survival.
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