Skin reacts at microscopic level to disease:
The loss of the ability to two epithelial cells to stick together, especially in stratum spinous
Thickening of skin through an increase in the number of cells in the stratum spinosum (prickle cells). Due to 2 mechanisms:
1) Increased proliferative activity of the stratum germinativum (eg psoriasis)
2) Decreased exfoliation of stratum corneum (eg ichthyosis)
A type of cell death
Due to a decrease in the number and vertical diametre of cells. Rete pegs are also shorter or absence. Due to a wide variety of causes.
Dilation of vessels
Increase in thickness of the stratum corneum layer. Eg – psoriasis, dermatitis, warts, mechanical hyperkeratosis.
Microscopic presence of serum within the epidermis in the extracellular space – comes from underlying dermis, usually following an inflammatory process.
Inflammatory cells in the intercellular space in the epidermis – usually accompanies spongiosis. Indicates immunological response to antigen.
Term used to describe aberrant growth and differentiation. Considered to lie on the continuum between benign and fully malignant.
Incomplete loss of epidermis (ulceration is a complete loss).